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Freshman English 

 

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To Kill A Mockingbird Essay

 

Impromptu Writing Assessment

(Atticus Finch: the Closing Argument)

Using the full range of Atticus’s closing argument, explain how he designs his statement to move the jury to acquit Tom Robinson. Make sure to identify Atticus’s choices and explain their intended effect.

 

Analysis Rubric

Atticus Finch: The Closing Argument

 5        These essays offer a persuasive analysis of Atticus’s use of specific details and language choices to influence his audience.  These responses analyze specific and apt evidence from the text to explore Atticus’s strategy, paying attention to multiple choices and their effect.  Their perceptive analysis is apparent in writing that is clear, precise and effectively organized.  Their prose demonstrates an ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless.

 4        These essays offer a reasonable analysis of Atticus’s use of specific details and language choices to influence his audience.  These responses analyze Atticus’s strategy, citing specific and apt evidence from the text, but are less convincing, wide-ranging or complex than a 5.  These responses generally present their ideas with clarity and control but may contain some lapses in diction or syntax.

3        These essays offer a superficial or uneven analysis of Atticus’s use of specific details and language choices to influence his audience. These responses may exhibit some analysis of Atticus’s strategy, but they use little or thin evidence from the text that might tend toward plot summary or restatement of what Atticus has said.  Their prose may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but usually conveys ideas adequately.

2        These essays offer an inadequate analysis of Atticus’s use of specific details and language choices to influence his audience.  Often relying on restatement of Atticus’s speech, these responses may misrepresent or inaccurately analyze his strategy, offer little discussion of specific choices Atticus makes.  These responses may be unfocused, repetitive or shallow.  Their prose generally conveys the writer’s ideas but may suggest immature control of writing.

1        These essays demonstrate little success in the analysis of Atticus’s use of specific details and language choices to influence his audience.  These essays may offer vague generalizations or substitute a simpler task such as summarizing the speech.  They may contain multiple errors that interfere with understanding.  Their prose demonstrates consistent weaknesses in writing.

0        These essays convey an on-topic response, such as merely repeating the prompt, but receive no credit.

Persuasive Rhetoric

The Three Appeals of Argument  The Three Appeals of Argument

Aristotle postulated three argumentative appeals: logical, ethical, and emotional. Strong arguments have a balance of all of three, though logical (logos) is essential for a strong, valid argument. Appeals, however, can also be misused, creating arguments that are not credible. 

 Logical Appeal (logos)

Logical appeal is the strategic use of logic, claims, and evidence to convince an audience of a certain point.  

 When used correctly, logical appeal contains the following elements... 

 ·          Strong, clear claims

·          Reasonable qualifiers for claims

·          Warrants that are valid

·          Clear reasons for claims

·          Strong evidence (facts, statistics, personal experience, expert authority, interviews,           observations, anecdotes)

·          Acknowledgement of the opposition 

 When used poorly, logical appeals may include..

 ·          Over-generalized claims

·          Reasons that are not fully explained or supported

·          Logical fallacies

·          Evidence misused or ignored

·          No recognition of opposing views 

Ethical Appeal (ethos)

Ethical appeal is used to establish the writer as fair, open-minded, honest, and knowledgeable about the subject matter. The writer creates a sense of him or herself as trustworthy and credible. 

 When used correctly, the writer is seen as…

 ·          Well-informed about the topic

·          Confident in his or her position

·          Sincere and honest

·          Understanding of the reader's concerns and possible objections

·          Humane and considerate 

 When used incorrectly, the writer can be viewed as...

 ·          Unfair or dishonest

·          Distorting or misrepresenting information (biased)

·          Insulting or dismissive of other viewpoints

·          Advocating intolerant ideas 

 Emotional Appeal (pathos) 

Not surprisingly, emotional appeals target the emotions of the reader to create some kind of connection with the writer. Since humans are in many ways emotional creatures, pathos can be a very powerful strategy in argument. For this same reason, however, emotional appeal is often misused...sometimes to intentionally mislead readers or to hide an         argument that is weak in logical appeal. A lot of visual appeal is emotional in nature (think of advertisements, with their powerful imagery, colors, fonts, and symbols). 

 When done well, emotional appeals... 

 ·          Reinforce logical arguments

·          Use diction and imagery to create a bond with the reader in a human way

·          Appeal to idealism, beauty, humor, nostalgia, or pity (or other emotions) in a balanced way

·          Are presented in a fair manner 

 When used improperly, emotional appeals…

 ·          Become a substitute for logic and reason (TV and magazine advertising often relies heavily on emotional rather than logical appeal)

·          Uses stereotypes to pit one group of people against another (propaganda and some political advertising does this)

·          Offers a simple, unthinking reaction to a complex problem

·          Takes advantage of emotions to manipulate (through fear, hate, pity, prejudice, embarrassment, lust, or other feelings) rather than convince credibly 

Effectiveness vs. Credibility 

 Credible (credibility) means an argument is logically sound and well-supported with strong evidence and reasoning. 

 Effective (effectiveness) means an argument works in convincing or persuading its    audience. Many arguments that are effective are also credible. . . but there are also many that aren't. 

 Examples of Logos, Ethos and Pathos

 Logos (Logical)

Let us begin with a simple proposition:  What democracy requires is public debate, not information.  Of course it needs information too, but the kind of information it needs can be generated only by vigorous popular debate.  We do not know what we need to know until we ask the right questions, and we can identify the right questions only by subjecting our ideas about the world to the test of public controversy.  Information, usually seen as the precondition of debate, is beter understood as its by product.  When we get into arguments that focus and fully engage our attention, we become avid seekers of relevant information.  Otherwise, we take in information passively--if we take it in at all.

Christopher Lasch, "The Lost Art of Political Argument"

Ethos (Ethical)

My Dear Fellow Clergymen:

While confined here in Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities "unwise and untimely."...Since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable in terms.

    I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the view which argues against "outsiders coming in."...I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here.  I am here because I have organizational ties here.

    But more basically, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here.  Just as the prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and carried their "thus saith the Lord" far beyond the boundaries of their home towns, and just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco-Roman world, so am I compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town.  Like Paul, I must constantly respond to the Macedonian call for aid.

Martin Luther King, Jr. "Letter from Birmingham Jail"

Pathos (Emotional)

For me, commentary on war zones at home and abroad begins and ends with personal reflections.  A few years ago, while watching the news in Chicago, a local news story made a personal connection with me.  The report concerned a teenager who had been shot because he had angered a group of his male peers.  This act of violence caused me to recapture a memory from my own adolescence because of an instructive parallel in my own life with this boy who had been shot.  When I was a teenager some thirty-five years ago in the New York metropolitan area, I wrote a regular column for my high school newspaper.  One week, I wrote a colunm in which I made fun of the fraternities in my high school.  As a result, I elicited the anger of some of the most aggressive teenagers in my high school.  A couple of nights later, a car pulled up in front of my house, and the angry teenagers in the car dumped garbage on the lawn of my house as an act of revenge and intimidation.

James Garbarino "Children in a Violent World: A Metaphysical Perspective

 

Read the article below.  Defend, refute, or qualify whether or not a student a school should allow a student to turn his/her back to the flag during the national anthem.  Be sure to use methods of persuasion in your essay.  It is due at the end of the hour. 

Spurning anthem creates rancor

By Tom Pedulla, USA TODAY

PURCHASE, N.Y. — Manhattanville defeated the Merchant Marine Academy 67-51 Tuesday in a Division III women's league playoff game that had little to do with basketball and everything to do with protest and patriotism.

 

To be more specific, it had to do with Toni Smith, who smiled before she turned away and looked down while Manhattanville teammates faced the flag during the national anthem.

 

The senior has done that before every game this season, but her actions a little more than 25 miles from the attack on the World Trade Center only recently gained national attention when a Marine veteran carrying a flag walked onto the court to counter her actions.

 

Tuesday, in her first interview, Smith said she is driven by her "conscience."

"There are many inequalities in this country which people are not aware of," she said. "The rich get richer, the poor get poorer."

 

She dismissed the idea that she might be offering encouragement to Iraq. "I don't think Saddam Hussein is watching me right now," she said.

Opposing coach Michael Murray watched Smith's rejection of the flag with dismay. His assistant, Doug Carter, was not on the bench because he had recently been called to active duty with the National Guard.

"It really hit home," Murray said, "because he's going to fight for our freedom and the flag symbolizes that freedom."

 

Murray, who wore an American flag lapel pin, said of Smith, "Maybe if they had an assistant who had to go off to war, her view might be a bit different."

 

Smith's stand is consistent with her previous behavior. Her bio on the school's Web site includes this favorite quote: "It will be a great day when our schools get all the money they need and the military has to hold a bake sale to buy a bomber." She said in a recent statement that a war "will cause many innocent people, women and children, mothers and babies, to die overseas."

 

Smith's latest protest evoked strong emotions in the crowd of approximately 300 that packed tiny Kennedy Gymnasium. Her introduction brought a mix of cheers and boos. At the completion of the anthem, supporters shouted "To-ni! To-ni!" while others countered with chants of "USA! USA!"

 

The national media turned out for the game, including at least 15 TV cameramen who stood on the court and focused on her during the anthem.

 

Some fans turned their backs on her when she was fouled and shot two free throws in the opening minutes. She appeared not to notice and swished both attempts for two of her four points.

 

Richard Berman, Manhattanville's president, said, "I think it's actually very healthy. I think what you see is a college campus alive with feeling and passion, where many perspectives can be shared with vigor."

 

About 20 military veterans gathered outside the main entrance to campus, waving flags and venting their emotions. Mark Volpe of White Plains, N.Y., suggested Smith is misguided: "She's not turning her back on the government or President Bush. She's turning her back on thousands of Americans who died for the freedoms she enjoys."

 

Four of Smith's teammates distinguished their views from hers by wearing red, white and blue headbands.

 

The victory means another home game for the Valiants, Thursday against Stevens Tech (N.J.)

 

Read the scenario below.  Defend, refute, or qualify whether or not one voice is enough to “shift a conversation” like the example given below.  Be sure to use methods of persuasion in your essay.  It is due at the end of the hour. 

 Scenario: Speaking up

I was at a party, relaxed, enjoying myself when the joke telling began: “There were three _____ who went to the …” The joke progressed. It was clearly demeaning to a group of people.

The face of my close friend and colleague popped into my mind – he is a member of the group being debased. Two different voices – the proverbial angel and devil on my shoulder – filled my head.

“Leslie, say something! You know you don’t support this!”

“Relax it’s a party! Have fun…lighten up. People won’t like you if you can’t take a joke.”

“Speak up, you coward! You can’t talk about valuing diversity all day at work and then stereotype people for entertainment at night. Be true to yourself.”

In those long seconds while I twitched and struggled with what to do, the disk jockey, who was sitting with us on a break, simply said, “Whoa! I’m not going there. I think I'd rather get something to drink.” He got up and walked across the room. I hopped up and followed him: “Great idea.”

I’ll never forget what happened next. Others in the group joined us in the kitchen, leaving only two people to hear the joke’s punch line. I was amazed. Few of us wanted to hear the joke, but we went along anyway. It took just one voice – one person casually speaking up against disrespect – to shift the entire conversation.

Vocabulary Link Information

Mr. Montague has posted each of the vocabulary lesson packets on his website.  His classes' due dates are NOT the same as ours, so please disregard them.  Feel free to print the lessons and/or words if you've forgotten or lost the packet I gave you. 

 

Vocabulary Link:    http://staff.gpschools.org/montaga/Freshmen/Vocab%202009/Fresh%20Voc%20Sched%2009.htm

 

 

Short Story Literary Analysis Paragraphs

 

Paragraph 1-give a brief summary of the story without spoiling the ending.  Include the author, title, and genre.

 

Paragraph 2-Pick one literary element and discuss the impact on the story and reader.

 

Short Story Basic Requirements

 

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minimum 4 typed double spaced Times New Roman 12 pt. font

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must use words from the 6 vocabulary lessons

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must use antagonist, protagonist, characterization, plot (conflict, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution, denouement), exposition, figurative language, imagery, foreshadowing, irony, mood, point of view, setting, tone--symbolism and flashback are also options

 

Eight Parts of Speech

 

1.             Noun-     person, place, thing

2.             Verb-      indicates action or state of being

State of Being Verbs:

am           is             are           was         were        be            being      been

do           does       did          have       has          had         may         must

might      shall        should    can          could      will          would     taste

feel          look        smell

3.                    pronoun-takes the place of a noun

4.                    adjective-modifies (describes) nouns and pronouns.  Answers questions---what 

               kind, how many, and which one(s)

5.             adverbs-modifies (describes) verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs---usually ends

       in –ly.  Answers the questions—how, when, where, and to what extent.

 6.                    preposition-relates its object to another word in the sentence.

 7.             interjection-shows excitement or emotion.

 8.             conjunction-combines words, phrases, and clauses

 

Basic Essay Structure

 

Introductory Paragraph

 

Sentence 1:    Introduce Topic (no opinion)

 

Sentence 2-3:  Narrow Focus

 

Sentence 4:    Thesis Statement

 

Body Paragraph(s)

 

Sentence 1:    Topic Sentence

 

Sentence 2:    Example To Support Topic Sentence

 

Sentence 3:    Explanation of Example

 

Sentence 4:    Example To Support Topic Sentence

 

Sentence5:    Explanation of Example

 

Sentence 6:    Restate Topic Sentence

 

Concluding Paragraph

 

Sentence 1:    Restate Thesis Statement

 

Sentences 2-3:  Summarize Main Points (Topic Sentences)

 

Sentence 4:    Clincher (Slam The Door!)

 

 

Choose One of The Following and Write A Response on loose leaf paper using one side of the paper only:

 1.       What is the difference between the law of love and fellowship in the Southland and the law of club and fang in the Northland?   Explain.  Be sure to use examples.

 2.       In their fight to the death, why is Buck able to defeat Spitz?  Explain.  Be sure to use examples.

3.       What conflicts that Buck has experienced seem to be the most challenging?  Explain.  Be sure to use examples.

 

Week 2 Vocabulary Words and Exercises:

Week 1 vocabulary words:  archaic, argot, connotation, denotation, idiom, jargon, semantics, slang, standard, vernacular

Review for Freshman English Second Semester Final Exam

Your exam will consist of two equally weighted parts:

Part I:  You will have 45 minutes to complete 42 multiple choice questions – You will read several poems or short passages and for each        of them you will respond to several multiple choice questions.  These questions could pertain to theme, language, sentence structure, figures of speech, conflict, characterization, literary techniques or conventions, tone, rhetorical techniques, or paraphrase.

Part II:  You will have 45 minutes for the Constructed Essay Response – You will be asked to read a passage and respond in writing to a prompt. The prompt will ask you to identify imagery and figurative language and evaluate how effectively it helps the author to convey a message to readers.

 Terminology:  Know these terms for the final exam. These terms are used in the questions or the multiple-choice options in Part I of the exam. They could also be terms you will look for and discuss in your written response in Part II of the exam.  

                                                                                                                                                Monologue

Sentence                                                Paraphrase                                                            Drama

Phrase                                                    Sensory  Images/Imagery                                   Act

Clause                                                    Alliteration                                                            Scene

Antecedent                                           Onomatopoeia                                                      Stage Directions

                                                                Internal Rhyme                                                     Dialogue

Conflict                                                  End Rhyme                                                            Characters

Atmosphere/Mood                              Rhyme Scheme                                                     Soliloquy

Theme                                                    Stanza                                                                    Aside

Character                                               Couplet                                                                                 

Setting                                                   Quatrain                                                                 Main Idea

Resolution                                             Meter                                                                     Supporting Details

                                                                Iambic Pentameter                                                Inferences

                                                                Blank Verse                                                           Drawing Conclusions

Figurative Language                           Free Verse                                                            

Paradox                                                  Sonnet                                                                                                                                  

Contrast                                                 Tone                                                                       The Writing Process

Simile                                                      Theme                                                                    Pre-Writing/Brainstorming

Metaphor                                                                                                                              Drafting

Personification                                     Flashback                                                              Revising

Hyperbole                                             Foreshadowing                                                    Editing

Symbol                                                   Verbal Irony                                                          Publishing

                                                                Situational Irony

Rhetorical Techniques                        Dramatic Irony

Parallel Structure                                  Allusion

Repetition

Connotation of a word

Denotation of a word

Tone

Appeals to reason, emotion, and authority (see below)

 

Appeal to reason – A call upon the reader’s ability to think in a rational way in order to persuade the reader’s thoughts.

Appeal to Authority – A call upon an individual or other source as an expert to strengthen an argument made by the author of a work.

Appeal to emotion – This is a popular approach in arguments. Instead of presenting evidence in an argument, it relies on expressive language and other devices calculated to incite enthusiasm, excitement, anger, or hatred on the part of the reader.

5/21/08 Impromptu Scenario

Scenario: Speaking up

I was at a party, relaxed, enjoying myself when the joke telling began: “There were three ______ who went to the …” The joke progressed. It was clearly demeaning to a group of people.

The face of my close friend and colleague popped into my mind – he is a member of the group being debased. Two different voices – the proverbial angel and devil on my shoulder – filled my head.

“Leslie, say something! You know you don’t support this!”

“Relax it’s a party! Have fun…lighten up. People won’t like you if you can’t take a joke.”

“Speak up, you coward! You can’t talk about valuing diversity all day at work and then stereotype people for entertainment at night. Be true to yourself.”

In those long seconds while I twitched and struggled with what to do, the disk jockey, who was sitting with us on a break, simply said, “Whoa! I’m not going there. I think I'd rather get something to drink.” He got up and walked across the room. I hopped up and followed him: “Great idea.”

I’ll never forget what happened next. Others in the group joined us at the bar, leaving only two people to hear the joke’s punch line. I was amazed. Few of us wanted to hear the joke, but we went along anyway. It took just one voice – one person casually speaking up against disrespect – to shift the entire conversation.

 

Lit Analysis/Lit Crit

Intro            Include poet's name and discuss overall impression of the poet's work

 

Body 1        Summarize and focus on the main poem you've chosen.  Discuss its strengths and flaws.  Be 

                    sure to give examples and identify line numbers.

 

Body 2        Recommendations--Would you recommend people read the poet's work?  Why or why not--                    or both.

 

Concl        Wrap it up! 

 

Include bibliography

 

#___________________                                            Name_______________________

                                                                                    Date_____________Hour_______

Poetry Research Project

Poet’s Name____________________________________________

 Three Poems____________________________________________

                     _____________________________________________

                      _____________________________________________

 Romeo and Juliet Final Project

1.      Neat and creative cover -- 5 points
You can print pictures to put on your cover or you can draw one.  The cover should be neat--don’t clutter it.  Include your name, date, hour, and number.

2.      Create two license plates --  10 points

Using letters and numbers, create a “custom vanity plate” that capture a theme or important aspect of the play.  You may use the license plate creator at the following website: http://www.acme.com/licensemaker/licensemaker.cgi?state=.  In addition, you must write a ½ page double spaced explanation for each license plate you created.  Discuss and defend why it is important to the play. 

3.     Create a scrapbook page for Romeo OR Juliet – 15 points 
Give a short description of each item included.  What type of items might he/she have saved as a reminder of important times in his/her life?  Minimum of 3-5 related items on each page with a minimum of 5 pages.

4.      Write a four-paragraph essay -- TYPED – 20 points
Use this prompt:  Who was most responsible for the deaths of Romeo and Juliet?   Explain and support with examples from the play.
               
TOTAL POINTS POSSIBLE: 50 POINTS    

DUE DATE:  TUESDAY, APRIL 29, 2008 (You will have additional assignments during this time; that is why you have been given such a long amount of time to finish the project.  This is an important lesson in planning and time management.  This is an important grade—please take it seriously. 

License Plate Builder website:

http://www.acme.com/licensemaker/licensemaker.cgi?state=

Reading Delia: Sonnet 1

Student Name ___________________________________________________ Date ________________

INSTRUCTIONS: Read the following sonnet and respond to the questions below. Note that the sonnet is written in Early Modern English, so some words may look odd to you. With a little effort, you should be able to discern the meaning (hint: sometimes "v" replaces "u," or vice-versa, as in "Vnto" or "reueale"). Use the space between lines to annotate unclear passages.

Delia. Contayning certayne Sonnets: vvith the complaint of Rosamond.

by Samuel Daniel

TO DELIA

Sonnet I.

Vnto the boundles Ocean of thy beautie Runs this poore riuer, charg'd with streames of zeale: Returning thee the tribute of my dutie, Which heere my loue, my youth, my playnts reueale. Heere I vnclaspe the booke of my charg'd soule, Where I have cast th'accounts of all my care: Heere have I summ'd my sighes, heere I enroule Howe they were spent for thee; Looke what they are. Looke on the deere expences of my youth, And see how iust I reckon with thyne eyes: Examine well thy beautie with my trueth, And crosse my cares ere greater summes arise. Reade it sweet maide, though it be doone but slightly; Who can shewe all his loue, doth loue but lightly.

Permission is granted to educators to reproduce thi s worksheet for classroom use 'You Kiss by the Book': Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet — http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=303

1. Write the rhyme scheme of the sonnet below or next to the lines in the poem above.

 

2. Which sonnet form does this rhyme scheme more closely resemble? What might the rhyme scheme indicate about the organization of the content of the sonnet?

 

3. Identify and explain the metaphor in the first line that Daniel uses to characterize Delia’s beauty.

 

4. How do the metaphors in the next three lines extend the opening metaphor into a conceit? Be sure to explain the other metaphors as they relate to the one in the first line.

 

5. In the next eight lines, Daniel develops an even more elaborate conceit built upon the business ledger. Explain the metaphor associated with this ledger and how Daniel extends this metaphor into a conceit in the subsequent lines. What other metaphors does he use and what do they compare?

 

6. The last two lines usually comment on the rest of the sonnet, making the sonnet’s point clear. What do these lines say is the point that the speaker of the sonnet is trying to make? How does that point apply to the rest of the sonnet and the conceits used?

 

7. The name "Delia" is an anagram for another word that helps to explain the speaker’s attitude toward the woman to whom he speaks. Decipher the anagram and explain how the new word applies to her.

 

 

Sonnet Unscrambler

Student Name ___________________________________________________ Date ________________

Try your knowledge and luck to unscramble the following sonnet. Then determine its meaning and message:

Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,

And often is his gold complexion dimm’d,

And every fair from fair sometime declines,

So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

But thy eternal summer shall not fade,

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,

So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,

By chance or nature’s changing course untrimm’d

Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st,

Thou art more lovely and more temperate:

Nor shall Death brag thou wand’rest in his shade,

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st.

And summer’s lease hath all too short a date;

Hints for Unscrambling the Sonnet

Sonnets are often organized in much the same way as a paragraph.

1. Locate the 2 lines that provide an introduction and generalization about the sonnet's subject. These will begin the sonnet.

2. Find the two rhyming lines that explain what the overall point of the sonnet is. These will be sonnet's concluding lines.

3. Group the lines by rhyme, then group them by subject. See if the end punctuation to each line provides some clues to grouping.

4. Look at the beginning word in each line. If the line begins with a conjunction, such as and, but, or, nor, for, yet, or so, try to find the line before it that links with it in content. Look for conjunctions that show a contrast to the previous thoughts, such as but or yet. These introduce an important shift in thought or a different angle on the subject and can help with grouping the lines by meaning. Based on the number of lines that take the same angle on the topic, determine where the shift in the sonnet occurs.

#__________________                                                                    Name_____________________________

Directions:  You are one of Martin Luther King’s children and you have been asked to give a speech honoring your father.  Before you can really do this, you need to know who you are.  Answer the following questions to help you get into “character” before you write your speech.  This sheet is due Friday, December 2 with your completed speech.

What is your name?

 

How old are you? 

 

When and where were you born? 

 

Do you have any memories of your father Martin Luther King?

 

What do you believe his greatest accomplishment was?

 

What do you believe his legacy to be?

 

What is your greatest accomplishment?

 

What do you want your legacy to be?

 

Where do you live?

 

How long have you lived there?

 

What do you like about living there?

 

What would you change about living there?

 

What do you do for a living?

 

Did you attend college?

 

Have you earned any college degrees?

 

Have you earned any awards or special recognitions?

 

Do you have a family?

 

If yes, who does it consist of?

 

Are you married?

 

If yes, for how long?

 

Are you a parent?

 

If yes, how many children?

 

What are their names and ages?

 

What is your greatest childhood memory?

 

What is your worst childhood memory?

 

What goals have you set for yourself?

 

Have you achieved them?

 

What is the best thing about being Martin Luther King’s child?

 

What is the worst thing about being Martin Luther King’s child?

 

Anything else you would like to add?

 

What day have you chose to give this speech?

 

Why have you chosen that day?   What is the significance?

 

What location have you chosen for the speech?

 

Why have you chosen that location?   What is the significance?

 

Why did you agree to make the speech?

 

What is the title of your speech?

 

MLK Dream Speech Assignment

Read and discuss MLK’s Dream Speech

Fill out the MLK form

They should create a situation in their minds that will allow them to become the person they created so that the speech they write and deliver will be realistic and believable.  When they finish the form, they work on their speeches. 

They should consider using repetition, allusion, imagery, and other literary techniques to make their speech better. 

The form will be turned in with their speeches.   

They will be presenting their speeches in class as well as handing them in. 

You are one of Martin Luther King’s children.  You have been asked to make a speech honoring your father. You’ve been asked to address what he spoke of and fought for in your speech.  You must write the speech, title it, decide where it will be given (location) and when (date).  You should look at MLK’s I have a dream speech to see examples of the use of repetition, allusion, imagery, parallelism, as well as other literary techniques that will improve your speech.

Writing Assessment

Non-Fiction

“Thinking Like a Mountain”

Aldo Leopold

Analyze how Leopold’s language encourages and illustrates the relationship between humans and nature.

 

 A TRUE STORY

 

By the age of four, Roger Dean Kiser had been abandoned, first by his parents and then his grandparents and placed in a Florida orphanage. Unable to adapt to the difficult, often cruel and abusive environment of the orphanage, and stigmatized by his repeated attempts to run away, he was transferred to a Florida reform school at age twelve.

 

 


 

Butterflies
Roger Dean Kiser
 
         
There was a time in my life when beauty meant something special to me. I guess that would have been when I was about six or seven years old, just several weeks or maybe a month before the orphanage turned me into an old man.
     I would get up every morning at the orphanage, make my bed just like the little soldier that I had become and then I would get into one of the two straight lines and march to breakfast with the other twenty or thirty boys who also lived in my dormitory.
     After breakfast one Saturday morning I returned to the dormitory and saw the house parent chasing the beautiful monarch butterflies who lived by the hundreds in the azalea bushes strewn around the orphanage.
     I carefully watched as he caught these beautiful creatures, one after the other, and then took them from the net and then stuck straight pins through their head and wings, pinning them onto a heavy cardboard sheet.
     How cruel it was to kill something of such beauty. I had walked many times out into the bushes, all by myself, just so the butterflies could land on my head, face and hands so I could look at them up close.
     When the telephone rang the house parent laid the large cardboard paper down on the back cement step and went inside to answer the phone. I walked up to the cardboard and looked at the one butterfly who he had just pinned to the large paper. It was still moving about so I reached down and touched it on the wing causing one of the pins to fall out. It started flying around and around trying to get away but it was still pinned by the one wing with the other straight pin. Finally its wing broke off and the butterfly fell to the ground and just quivered.
     I picked up the torn wing and the butterfly and I spat on its wing and tried to get it to stick back on so it could fly away and be free before the house parent came back. But it would not stay on him.
     The next thing I knew the house parent came walking back out of the back door by the garbage room and started yelling at me. I told him that I did not do anything but he did not believe me. He picked up the cardboard paper and started hitting me on the top of the head. There were all kinds of butterfly pieces going everywhere. He threw the cardboard down on the ground and told me to pick it up and put it in the garbage can inside the back room of the dormitory and then he left.

< 2 >

     I sat there in the dirt, by that big old tree, for the longest time trying to fit all the butterfly pieces back together so I could bury them whole, but it was too hard to do. So I prayed for them and then I put them in an old torn up shoe box and I buried them in the bottom of the fort that I had built in the ground, out by the large bamboos, near the blackberry bushes.
     Every year when the butterflies would return to the orphanage and try to land on me I would try and shoo them away because they did not know that the orphanage was a bad place to live and a very bad place to die.

Final TKAM Writing Prompt

Topic:  Social Criticism and TKAM

Thesis:

To Kill A Mockingbird is more than just a story.  It is a stand against injustice and the mistreatment of people.

 

List of Elements

Character: a person or animal who takes part in the action of a literary work.

Main Character: protagonist who is the most important individual in the story, the focus of the reader's attention

Round Character: full developed with both good and bad traits revealed and background is revealed

Flat Character: possesses only one or two traits

Dynamic Character: changes during the story

Static Character: does not change during the story

Climax: the highest point of interest or suspense

Conflict: a struggle between opposing forces

External Conflict: character struggles against some outside person or force

Internal Conflict: struggle takes place within the protagonist's mind to reach some new understanding or decision

Drama: a story written to be performed by actors

Fiction: prose writing that tells about imaginary characters and events

Flashback: a section of a literary work that interrupts the sequence of events to relate an event from an earlier time.

Foreshadowing: clues that suggest events that have yet to occur, what may happen next, creates suspense

Irony: techniques that involve surprising, interesting, or amusing contradictions

Plot: sequence of events that contains conflicts, climax, and resolution

 

TKAM Chapter 23 Study Questions

 

1.  How did Bob Ewell confront Atticus?  How did Atticus react?  What does Atticus's reaction reveal about his character?

 

2.  What does circumstantial evidence mean in terms of Tom's trial?

 

3.  Why don't Maycomb citizens sit on juries in their town?

 

4.  Why does Scout want to befriend Walter Cunningham now (after learning more about the inner workings of the trial)?

 

5.  Why does Aunt Alexandra accept that the Cunninghams may be good but are not "our kind or folks"?  Do you think that people should mix only with others of the same social class and/or race?  Are class/race-divisions good or bad for societies?

 

6.  Identify evidence in the story that reveals Scout is naive and childlike and Jem is more mature and adult-like in his understanding of people.

 

WRITING ASSIGNMENT - Of Mice and Men

Of Mice and Men Essay  

bulletYour essay must be a minimum of 5-6 paragraphs
bulletYour body paragraphs must be a minimum of 8-10 sentences long
bulletYou must include at least 2 quotes per paragraph from the book to support your statements—these quotes may be direct or indirect quotes, however, you must put the page number in parenthesis
bulletYour essay is due on ___Monday, December 3, 2007_____________________
bulletThe prompt is listed below. 

 

 

PROMPT

Now that you have completed reading the novelette, you know that George kills Lennie.

This act is presented as the humane thing to do for Lennie, which it very well could have been.

Playing Devil's Advocate, though, one could ask if, indeed, this was the correct decision. If

Lennie had been taken to trial, perhaps he would have been excused on grounds of lack of mental

competence and may have been given a better life than he had had with George.

In this writing assignment, we're putting George on trial for murdering Lennie. You are to

become either the attorney for George's defense or the prosecuting attorney. Your assignment is

to write your closing arguments to the jury. (Closing arguments are a lawyers final summary of

his case and his best efforts at persuading the jury to his side.)


PREWRITING

To begin, decide which side you want to take--George's defense or the prosecution. On a

piece of paper, jot down the main points, the facts which will support your case. Decide which

points are your strongest and which of the arguments you will make are weaker. Organize your

points from weakest to strongest and jot down anything you can think of which will support or

explain your points.

 

DRAFTING

Begin with an introductory paragraph in which you introduce the jury to your side of the

case. Follow that with one paragraph for each of the main points you have to support your case.

Fill in each paragraph with examples and facts which support your main point. Then, write a

paragraph in which you make your final closing statements.

 

PROMPT

When you finish your rough draft, ask a student who sits near you to read it. After reading

your rough draft, he/she should tell you what he/she liked best about your work, which parts were

difficult to understand, and ways in which your work could be improved. Reread your paper

considering your critic's comments and make the corrections you think are necessary.

 

PROOFREADING

Do a final proofreading of your paper double-checking your grammar, spelling, organization, and

the clarity of your ideas.

 

 

Study Questions and Answers - Of Mice and Men

Chapter 1

1. Identify and give a physical description of Lennie and George. 

Lennie was a huge man, shapeless of face with large, pale eyes, with wide, sloping shoulders, and he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little. Lennie is George's friend, who is not very smart but is an extremely strong man and a good worker.

George was small and quick, dark of face, with restless eyes and sharp, strong features. He had small, strong hands, slender arms, a thin and bony nose. George took care of Lennie as they traveled together.

 

2. What is George's first complaint to Lennie?

George's first complaint is that Lennie is drinking too much water. This is just the first of a series of complaints George has about Lennie. He is almost always complaining about Lennie, but that doesn't change the fact that he appreciates Lennie's companionship.

 

3. What trouble did George and Lennie have in Weed?

All we learn in chapter 1 is that some men came after George and Lennie for something they had done. We later learn that apparently Lennie touched a girl's dress to feel the material. When she tried to move, he got excited and confused and held on even tighter. The girl accused him of trying to rape her, and that's when the men came looking for him.

 

4. What is in Lennie's pocket? Why does he have it?

A dead mouse is in Lennie's pocket. He has it because he likes to pet soft things.

 

5. George bursts into a long speech about what he could do if he were alone. What could he do?

He could take his money and go to a cat house or out drinking whiskey all night or spend his time playing cards at a pool hall; in short, the things the lonely ranch hands do.

 

6. Lennie offers to go away and live in a cave. What is George's response?

He tells Lennie that Lennie wouldn't survive, that he couldn't find any food or take care of himself. Then, he admits to Lennie that he doesn't want him to go.

 

7. Why are George and Lennie different from the other "guys like us that work on ranches"?

They are different because each one has the other to look out for him.

 

8. What are George and Lennie going to do someday?

Someday George and Lennie are going to have a little piece of land with a little shack. They'll have some animals and some crops -- especially a little alfalfa patch so Lennie can pick it and feed the rabbits. They're going to live off the fat of the land, where no one can tell them to get out or boss them around.

 

9. What two things does George want Lennie to remember?

George wants Lennie to remember to not say anything when they talk to the boss and to return to this campsite if he gets into trouble.

 

10. Why did George want to camp overnight instead of going another quarter of a mile to the

ranch?

At the ranch in the evening there would be too many people for Lennie to deal with at once; he might get confused. Also, it would give Lennie a chance to prove himself as a good worker before everyone would discover how slow he was mentally.

 

Chapter 2

1. What does George answer when the boss asks what he is trying to put over?

He says he isn't trying to put anything over, that he and Lennie travel together; they are cousins. He says that Lennie is slow mentally because he got kicked in the head by a horse, but that he is a strong, good worker who follows orders well.

 

2. Identify and describe Curley.

Curley was the boss' son. He was a young man with a brown face, brown eyes and a head of tightly curled hair. He wore a work glove on his left hand, and he wore high-heeled boots. Curley was a little man, but had been a boxing champion. He didn't like anybody and was always picking fights.

 

3. The swamper said, "Seems like Curley ain't givin' nobody a chance." Explain.

If Curley would fight a big man and win, everyone would think he was very strong and would congratulate him. If Curley would fight a big man and lose, everyone would feel sorry for him and tell the big man to pick on someone his own size. Either way, Curley would come out the favorite of the crowd.

 

4. What advice does George give Lennie after Curley and the swamper leave?

George tells Lennie to stay away from Curley, that he is nothing but trouble. Lennie replies that he doesn't like this place, and he wants to leave.

 

5. Identify Slim and Carlson.

 

Slim and Carlson are other ranch hands. Slim seems very reasonable and respected and tries to understand George and Lennie. Carlson is later responsible for killing Candy's dog.

 

6. What does Slim have that Lennie wants?

Slim's dog has just had a litter of puppies. Lennie wants one.

 

Chapter 3

1. Slim and George have a long conversation. Slim says it's funny how George and Lennie go around together. What is George's answer?

He explains that Lennie had no one else to take care of him, and George assumed the responsibility. He admits that Lennie is a pain in the neck sometimes, but that "you kinda get used to going around with a guy and after a while you can't get rid of 'm."

 

2. Identify Candy.

Candy is the swamper. He is an older man who has at some time lost one hand. He has an old dog he raised from a pup and although he realizes that the dog must be in misery, he can't bring himself to shoot it.

 

3. What did Carlson do with his Luger? Why?

Carlson shot Candy's dog to put it out of its misery because Candy couldn't bring himself to do it.

 

4. What card game does George play?

George plays solitaire.

 

5. Describe Curley's wife. What's the problem about her?

Curley's wife dresses and acts like a tramp, according to the men. The problem is that she is lonesome since Curley won't let her talk to anyone. She keeps coming around the bunkhouse and barn to talk to the men (and to make advances), and then Curley gets jealous and mad with the men and tries to start fights.

 

6. What will Lennie's job be when he and George get their land?

Lennie's job will be to tend the rabbits.

 

7. What does Candy want when he hears about George's and Lennie's plans? What is he willing to contribute?

Candy wants to join George and Lennie on their land. He is willing to put up several hundred dollars he has saved.

 

8. Why did Curley fight with Lennie? What happened?

Lennie was smiling, thinking about the land when Carlson and Candy were verbally attacking Curley. Curley sees Lennie smiling and assumes he is laughing at him. Curley begins beating on Lennie, who remains with his hands at his sides until George tells him several times to go ahead and fight back. Lennie grabs Curley's hand, and although he wasn't trying to hurt him, he crushes the hand, breaking several bones.

 

Chapter 4

1. Identify Crooks.

Crooks is the black stable hand. He has apparently worked on this ranch for some time, judging from his accumulated possessions.

 

2. Lennie tells Crooks about the land. What is his reply at first?

Crooks tells Lennie that he is nuts. He says he's seen hundreds of hands come and go with the same dream of having a piece of land, and none of them ever actually did get any land. "Nobody gets to heaven, and nobody gets no land. It's just in their head."

 

3. What does Crooks want when he believes there might really be land?

He wants to join the men on the land and will work for free, for just being able to live there.

 

4. Why did Curley's wife come to the barn?

She was looking for Curley, she said, but she actually came to talk to the men and find some company.

 

5. Why did Crooks change his mind after Curley's wife left?

He realized that the dream could never come true for him. He was a Negro who had just been put in his place by a white woman, and this fact brought back the harsh reality of his life.

 

Chapter 5

1. What happened to Lennie's puppy? What is his reaction?

Lennie's puppy died because he handled it too roughly. He knows George is going to be mad, and he thinks George won't let him tend the rabbits now.

 

2. Why did Curley's wife come to see Lennie?

Curley's wife came to see Lennie because she figured out that he crushed Curley's hand and wouldn't be afraid of Curley anymore -- he was the most likely candidate for her advances at this time.

 

3. What did she tell Lennie?

She told Lennie that she didn't like Curley and that she had had other opportunities to go places and make something of herself, but she couldn't take advantage of them, so she married Curley as the next most likely way to get out of her hometown.

 

4. Why did Lennie kill Curley's wife?

Curley's wife invited him to feel her soft hair. As we may have guessed from the foreshadowing event in Weed, he gets a little too rough and when Curley's wife starts to struggle, he gets confused and holds even tighter. When she starts to yell, Lennie thinks George will hear and will be mad that he is communicating with the woman, so he covers her mouth. Lennie gets more and more confused as to what to do (thinking that between the puppy's death and his talking to Curley's wife, George is going to be furious). Finally,

he shakes her and her neck snaps.

 

5. What was George's reaction when he found out about Curley's wife's death?

He didn't want the men to think he had anything to do with it, and then he tried to think how he could protect Lennie. He went and got his hat and coat and the Luger before he joined the men.

 

6. What was Curley's reaction to his wife's death?

Curley was furious, and right away assumed Lennie had done it. He was out for revenge to kill Lennie.

 

Chapter 6

1. How and why did George kill Lennie?

George met Lennie at the old campsite and tried to tell him he wasn't mad. He realized that the only way to protect Lennie from the devastating punishment which would be inflicted upon him was to kill him. He made up with Lennie and talked to him about the land, making Lennie look across the water to "see" it. Then he shot him with the Luger in the most humane way possible. George did what he had to do as Lennie's friend.

 

2. Who is the only one who really understands what George did?

When the men arrived, Slim was the only one who could sympathize with George. Because of their earlier conversation, he understood the relationship between George and Lennie.

 

 

Registers of Language

 

Frozen--Language that is always the same--it doesn't change (Lord's Prayer, Pledge of Allegiance, etc)

 

Formal-The standard sentence syntax and word choice of work and school.  Has complete sentences and specific word choices.

 

Consultative-Formal register when used in conversation.  discourse pattern not quite as direct as formal register.

 

Casual-Language between friends and is characterized by a 400-800 word vocabulary.  Word choice general and not specific.  Conversation dependent upon nonverbal assists.  Sentence syntax often incomplete.

 

Intimate-Language between lovers or twins.  Language of sexual harassment.

 

Adapted from Martin Joos's research by Ruby K. Payne, A Framework for Understanding Poverty.

 

Casual

Formal

What up dawg? How are you?

 

 

Elements of a Short Story

A short story is a short work of fiction. Fiction, as you know, is prose writing about imagined events and characters. Prose writing differs from poetry in that it does not depend on verses, meters or rhymes for its organization and presentation.

Novels are another example of fictional prose and are much longer than short stories. Some short stories, however, can be quite long. If a a short story is a long one, say fifty to one hundred pages, we call it a novella.

American literature contains some of the world's best examples of the short story. Readers around the world enjoy the finely crafted stories of American writers such as O. Henry, Stephen Crane, Jack London, Mark Twain and Edgar Allen Poe.

What makes these authors such remarkable short story writers? They are true masters at combining the five key elements that go into every great short story: character, setting, conflict, plot and theme. (http://users.aber.ac.uk/jpm/ellsa/ellsa_elements.html)

Helpful Definitions

Plot-A plot is a series of events related to a central conflict or struggle.  A typical plot involves the introduction of a conflict, its development, and its eventual resolution.  Terms used to describe elements of plot and descriptions of them can be found on page 951 of the Freshman Lit Book.

Flat Character-exhibits a single dominant characteristic (also called one-dimensional or caricature)

Round Character-is one who exhibits the complexity of traits associated with actual human beings (also called three dimensional or full)

Static Character-one who does not change during the course of the action

Dynamic Character-one who does change

Stock character- is one found again and again in different literary works.

Symbol-a thing that stands for or represents both itself and something else.

Denotation-dictionary definition

Connotation-an emotional association attached to a word or expression

Reading for SOAPS Notes

What is the Subject? the general topic, content, ideas contained in the text.

What is the Occasion? the time and place of the piece, the

situation that provoked the writer to write?

Who is the Audience? the group of readers to whom the piece is directed.

What is the Purpose? the reason behind the text.

Who is the Speaker? the voice behind the text, what do you know about him/her from reading the text?

 

Grammar Notes

Eight Parts of Speech

1.             Noun-     person, place, thing

2.             Verb-      indicates action or state of being

State of Being Verbs:

am           is             are           was         were        be         being     been

do           does       did          have       has          had         may      must

might      shall     should    can          could      will        would  taste

feel          look        smell

3.                  3.             pronoun-takes the place of a noun

4.                    adjective-modifies (describes) nouns and pronouns.  Answers questions---what 

              kind, how many, and which one(s)

5.             adverbs-modifies (describes) verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs---usually ends

                in –ly.  Answers the questions—how, when, where, and to what extent.

6.                    preposition-relates its object to another word in the sentence.

                about        beneath          in            past       

                above        beside             inside    since

                across       between         into        through

                after           beyond          like         to

               against      but (except)  near       toward

               along          by                    of           under

               among       concerning   off          until

               around     down              on          up

               at                during           onto       upon

               before        except            out          with

               behind      for                   outside  within

               below        from               over         without    

7.             interjection-shows excitement or emotion.

8.             conjunction-combines words, phrases, and clauses.

 

Additional Definitions

subject                         whom or what the sentence is about

predicate                     what  happens or what the subject does

predicate noun          a noun in the predicate that is the same as the subject

predicate adjective    an adjective in the predicate that describes the subject

common noun            name given to a common group of persons, places, or things

proper noun               particular person, place, or thing.  Always capitalized

direct object                noun that receives the action and answers the question what or whom 

                                       (the words to and for NEVER come before a direct object).

indirect object            noun that tells to whom or for whom the action applies.  It sits between the verb and direct object

                             (the words to and for NEVER come before a direct object).

 

Pronoun Notes

subject pronouns                         object pronouns

singular                                            singular

I, he, she, you                                  me, him, her, you

 

plural                                                plural

we, they                                            us, them

 

Finding and charting S-V-IO-DO-PN-PA 

1.     Find the subject

2.     Find the verb---be sure it is the whole verb

3.     Is it an action?  If yes--cross off PA and PN and go to step 4—if it is not an action, go to step 6

4.     Now look for something that answers the question what or whom—is the word a noun (person, place, or thing)?  Do the words to, for, in, with, over, etc., come before it?  If those words do not come before it, and it is a noun, and it answers the question what or whom, then it is your direct object.  It should not answer the question where!

5.     If there is a direct object, now look for an indirect object.  Is there a word that sits between the verb and the direct object?  Is it a noun?  Do the words to, for, in, with, over, etc., come before it?  If those words do not come before it, and it is a noun, then it is your indirect object. You must have a direct object to have an indirect object.  Now go to step 9.

6.     If the verb is not an action cross off IO and DO

7.     Next ask yourself if the subject equals something.

8.     Is the word it equals a noun (person, place, or thing)—it is a PN.  If it is an adjective (describing word)---it is a PA.  You cannot have a PN and a PA in the same sentence.

9.     Now, look to see if there is a DO for that sentence in the chart.  If so, it is transitive.  If not, it is intransitive.

 

Definitions

Clause:    Has a subject and a verb

Independent Clause:  Has a subject and a verb.  Can stand alone

Dependent Clause:  Has a subject and a verb.  Cannot stand alone (also called subordinate clause)

Adjective Clause:  A subordinate clause used as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun

Adjective Phrase:  a phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun

Adverb Phrase:  is a prepositional phrase used as an adverb.  They usually modify verbs.

Adverb Clause:  A subordinate clause used as an adverb

Phrase:  Does not have a subject and a verb

 Compound Sentence two independent clauses combined with a comma and a conjunction or a semicolon.

 Complex Sentence an independent clause and a dependent clause. 

Simple Sentence one independent clause (it could also be combined with a phrase). 

Examples

Clause:    I ran

Independent Clause:  I ran to the store

Dependent Clause:  After I ran to the store

Adjective Clause (in bold italics):  I know the cave that you are talking about.

Adjective Phrase (in bold italics):  I bought a box of apples

Adverb Clause (in bold italics):  When we arrived in Seattle, it was cold.

Adverb Phrase (in bold italics):  Pam sat in the rocking chair.

Phrase:  In an hour

 Compound Sentence  

Example:  I, conj I.   or     I; I.

 

I went to the store, and I bought milk.

                       or

I went to the store; I bought milk.

 Complex Sentence

Example:  I D.  or D, I.

 

After I ran to the store, I went to the bank.

                        or

I went to the bank after I ran to the store.

 Simple Sentence

Example:  I.  or   P, I. or  I P.

 

I went to the store.

After school, I went to the store.

I went to the store after school.

 

Sentence Types and Examples

Declarative sentence:  makes a statement; declare something; ends with a period.

Example:                      I saw a movie.

 

Imperative sentence:  commands you do something; ends with a period.

Example:                      Take out the garbage.

 

Exclamatory sentence: exclaims something with great emotion; always ends with an exclamation point.

Example:                      I won the lottery!

 

Interrogatory sentence:  asks a question; ends with a question mark.

Example:                      Did you order the salmon?

 

Indirect question:  Indirectly states what someone asked; ends with a period.

Example:                      She asked if she could have more water.

Poetry Notes/Definitions

 

 

  1. Figurative language- language taken beyond its literal ordinary meaning

 

  1. Imagery- writing that appeals to the five senses

 

  1. Simile- comparison between two unlike objects using the words like or as

 

  1. Metaphor-  direct comparison between two unlike objects

 

  1. Hyperbole- extreme exaggeration

 

  1. Oxymoron- contradiction of terms

 

  1. Alliteration- similar sounds in the same sentence

 

  1. Assonance- the repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds, especially in stressed syllables, with changes in the intervening consonants, as in the phrase tilting at windmills

 

  1. Consonance- The repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables as in on scrolls of silver snowy sentences

 

  1. Onomatopoeia-  the formation or use of words that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to (examples:  buzz, crack, snap, boom, smash)

 

  1. Personification- giving life-like or human characteristics to non-human things.

 

  1. Atmosphere- the dominant tone or mood of a work of art

TP-CASTT

Another method of analyzing poetry is the TP-CASTT method of analysis (a close cousin of the method we have been using.)  The following is a breakdown of this method:

Title:               Ponder the title before reading the poem

Paraphrase:     Translate the poem into your own words

Connotation:   Contemplate the poem for meaning beyond the literal level

Attitude:         Observe both the speaker’s and the poet’s attitude (tone).

Shifts:              Note shifts in speakers and attitudes

Title:               Examine the title again, this time on an interpretive level

Theme:           Determine what the poet is saying

 1.       Look at the title and attempt to predict what the poem will be about.

2.       Paraphrase the literal meaning or “plot” of the poem.  A true understanding of the poem must evolve from comprehension of “what’s going on in the poem.”

  3.       For poetry, connotation indicates that students should examine any and all poetic devices, focusing on how such devices contribute to the meaning, the effect, or both of a poem. Students may consider imagery (especially simile, metaphor, personification), symbolism, diction, point of view, and sound devices (alliteration, onomatopoeia, rhythm, and rhyme).

  4.       Having examined the poem’s devices and clues closely, you are ready to explore the multiple attitudes that may be present in the poem.

  5.       Rarely does a poet begin and end the poetic experience in the same place.  Discovery of a poet’s understanding of an experience is critical to the understanding of a poem.  Trace the feelings of the speaker from the beginning to the end, paying particular attention to the conclusion.

  Look for the following to find shifts:

1. Key words (but, yet, however, although)

2. Punctuation (dashes, periods, colons, ellipsis)

3. Stanza division

4. Changes in line or stanza length or both

5. Irony (sometimes irony hides shifts)

6. Effect of structure on meaning

7. Changes in sound (rhyme) may indicate changes in meaning

8. Changes in diction (slang to formal language)

  6.       Examine the title again, this time on an interpretive level.

  7.       Identify the theme by recognizing the human experience, motivation, or condition suggested by the poem.

  First summarize the plot (in writing or orally); next, list the subject or subjects of the poem (moving from literal subjects to abstract concepts such as war, death, discovery); then, to determine what the poet is saying about each subject and write a complete sentence.

  Example:

  Plot: In “Janet Walking” Janet awakens one morning and runs to greet her pet chicken only to discover that a bee had stung and killed the bird. The discovery desolates Janet to such a degree that her father cannot comfort her.

  Subjects: 1. A child’s first experience of death

                 2. loss of a pet

                 3. innocence

  Themes: 1. Children become aware of the inevitability of death and are transformed by the knowledge.

                                    2. The death of innocence is inevitable

 

The following information will be helpful when writing a literary analysis of a poem.  It was borrowed from:         http://www.brocku.ca/english/jlye/criticalreading.html#pgenre

 

Department of English aScout
Report
selection Brock University

CRITICAL READING: A GUIDE

A Guide Designed for His Year 1 Students
by Professor John Lye

Copyright John Lye 1996, 1997

 

This is a guide to what you might look for in analyzing literature, particularly poetry and fiction. An analysis explains what a work of literature means, and how it means it; it is essentially an articulation of and a defense of an interpretation which shows how the resources of literature are used to create the meaningfulness of the text. There are people who resist analysis, believing that it 'tears apart' a work of art; however a work of art is an artifice, that is, it is made by someone with an end in view: as a made thing, it can be and should be analyzed as well as appreciated. There are several main reasons for analyzing literature:

  1. The ultimate end of analysis is, first and foremost, a deeper understanding and a fuller appreciation of the literature -- you learn to see more, to uncover or create richer, denser, more interesting meanings. I have a brief page on the ideas of depth, complexity and quality as they relate to literature.

     

  2. Secondly, as literature uses language, images, the essential processes of meaning-making, analysis can lead to a more astute and powerful use of the tools of meaning on the reader's part.

     

  3. Thirdly, analysis should also teach us to be aware of the cultural delineations of a work, its ideological aspects. Art is not eternal and timeless but is situated historically, socially, intellectually, written and read at particular times, with particular intents, under particular historical conditions, with particular cultural, personal, gender, racial, class and other perspectives. Through art we can see ideology in operation. This can be of particular use in understanding our own culture and time, but has historical applications as well. See my brief page on ideology for an expansion of this.

     

  4. A fourth function of analysis is to help us, through close reading and through reflection, understand the way ideas and feelings are talked about in our culture or in other times and cultures -- to have a sense both of communities of meaning, and of the different kinds of understanding there can be about matters of importance to human life. Art can give us access to the symbolic worlds of communities: not only to the kinds of ideas they have about life, but also to the way they feel about them, to the ways they imagine them, to the ways they relate them to other aspects of their lives.

    You might also look at my page On the Uses of Studying Literature

This Guide contains the following major sections:
analysis of poetry , analysis of fiction , analysis of prose in fiction , writing an analytical essay .

 

I: Critical Analysis of Poetry

 

The process of analyzing a poem

The elements of analysis discussed below are designed to help you identify the ways in which poetry makes its meaning, especially its 'parts'; they do not give a sense of how one goes about analyzing a poem. It is difficult to give a prescription, as different poems call on different aspects of poetry, different ways of reading, different relationships between feeling, i mages and meanings, and so forth. My general advice, however, is this:

  1. look at the title
  2. read the poem for the major indicators of its meaning -- what aspects of setting, of topic, of voice (the person who is speaking) seem to dominate, to direct your reading?
  3. read the ending of the poem -- decide where it 'gets to'
  4. divide the poem into parts: try to understand what the organization is, how the poem proceeds, and what elements or principles guide this organization (is there a reversal, a climax, a sequence of some kind, sets of oppositions?)
  5. pay attention to the tone of the poem -- in brief, its attitude to its subject, as that is revealed in intonation, nuance, the kind of words used, and so forth.
  6. now that you've looked at the title, the major indicators of 'topic', the ending, the organization, the tone, read the poem out loud, trying to project its meaning in your reading. As you gradually get a sense of how this poem is going, what its point and drift is, start noticing more about how the various elements of the poetry work to create its meaning. This may be as different as the kind of imagery used, or the way it uses oppositions, or the level of realism or symbolism of its use of the natural world.

Reading poetry well is a balance among and conjunction of qualities: experience, attention, engagement with the qualities which make the poem resonant or compelling, close reading of structure and relationships. It's an acquired talent, you have to learn it. When you do, however, more and more meaning, power and beauty start leaping out at you.

 

Elements of analysis

Here then are some questions to apply to your analysis in order to see how the poem is making its meaning: they cover
genre, the speaker, the subject, the structure, setting, imagery, key statements,
the sound of the poetry, language use, intertextuality,
the way the reader is formed by the poem, the poem's historical placement, and
ideology or 'world-view'

1. What is the genre, or form, of the poem?

Is it a sonnet, an elegy, a lyric, a narrative, a dramatic monologue, an epistle, an epic (there are many more). Different forms or genres have different subjects, aims, conventions and attributes. A love sonnet, for instance, is going to talk about different aspects of human experience in different ways with different emphases than is a political satire, and our recognition of these attributes of form or genre is part of the meaning of the poem.

2. Who is speaking in the poem?

Please remember that if the voice of the poem says "I", that doesn't mean it is the author who is speaking: it is a voice in the poem which speaks. The voice can be undramatized (it's just a voice, it doesn't identify itself), or dramatized (the voice says "I", or the voice is clearly that of a particular persona, a dramatized character).

Identify the voice. What does the voice have to do with what is happening in the poem, what is its attitude, what is the tone of the voice (tone can be viewed as an expression of attitude). How involved in the action or reflection of the poem is the voice? What is the perspective or 'point of view' of the speaker? The perspective can be social, intellectual, political, even physical -- there are many different perspectives, but they all contribute to the voice's point of view, which point of view affects how the world of the poem is seen, and how we respond.

3. What is the argument, thesis, or subject of the poem

What, that is to say, is it apparently 'about'? Start with the basic situation, and move to consider any key statements; any obvious or less obvious conflicts, tensions, ambiguities; key relationships, especially conflicts, parallels, contrasts; any climaxes or problems posed or solved (or not solved); the poem's tone; the historical, social, and emotional setting.

4. What is the structure of the poem?

There are two basic kinds of structure, formal and thematic.

Formal structure is the way the poem goes together in terms of its component parts: if there are parts -- stanza's, paragraphs or such -- then there will be a relation between the parts (for instance the first stanza may give the past, the second the present, the third the future).

Thematic structure, known in respect to fiction as 'plot', is the way the argument or presentation of the material of the poem is developed. For instance a poem might state a problem in eight lines, an answer to the problem in the next six; of the eight lines stating the problem, four might provide a concrete example, four a reflection on what the example implies. There may well be very close relations between formal and thematic structure. When looking at thematic structure, you might look for conflicts, ambiguities and uncertainties, the tensions in the poem, as these give clear guides to the direction of meanings in the poem, the poem's 'in-tensions'.

 

5. How does the poem make use of setting?

There is the setting in terms of time and place, and there is the setting in terms of the physical world described in the poem.

In terms of the physical world of the poem, setting can be used for a variety of purposes. A tree might be described in specific detail, a concrete, specific, tree; or it might be used in a more tonal way, to create mood or associations, with say the wind blowing mournfully through the willows; or it might be used as a motif, the tree that reminds me of Kathryn, or of my youthful dreams; or it might be used symbolically, as for instance an image of organic life; or it might be used allegorically, as a representation of the cross of Christ (allegory ties an image or event to a specific interpretation, a doctrine or idea; symbols refer to broader, more generalized meanings).
Consider this a spectrum, from specific, concrete, to abstract, allegorical:
concrete --- tonal -- connotative -- symbolic --- allegorical

 

6. How does the poem use imagery?

"Imagery" refers to any sort of image, and there are two basic kinds. One is the images of the physical setting, described above. The other kind is images as figures of speech, such as metaphors. These figures of speech extend the imaginative range, the complexity and comprehensibility of the subject. They can be very brief, a word or two, a glistening fragment of insight, a chance connection sparked into a blaze (warming or destroying) of understanding; or they can be extended analogies, such as Donne's 'conceits'or Milton's epic similes.

 

7. Are there key statements or conflicts in the poem that appear to be central to its meaning?

Is the poem direct or indirect in making its meanings? If there are no key statements, are there key or central symbol, repetitions, actions, motifs (recurring images), or the like?

8. How does the sound of the poetry contribute to its meaning?

Pope remarked that "the sound must seem an echo to the sense": both the rhythm and the sound of the words themselves (individually and as they fit together) contribute to the meaning.

9. Examine the use of language.

What kinds of words are used? How much and to what ends does the poet rely on connotation, or the associations that words have (as "stallion" connotes a certain kind of horse with certain sorts of uses)? Does the poem use puns, double meanings, ambiguities of meaning?

 

10. Can you see any ways in which the poem refers to, uses or relies on previous writing?

This is known as allusion or intertextuality. When U-2's Bono writes "I was thirsty and you kissed my lips" in "Trip Through Your Wires," the meaning of the line is vastly extended if you know that this is a reference to Matthew 25:35 in the Bible, where Jesus says to the saved in explanation of what they did right, "I was thirsty and you wet my lips."

 

11. What qualities does the poem evoke in the reader?

What sorts of learning, experience, taste and interest would the 'ideal' or 'good' reader of this poem have? What can this tell you about what the poem 'means' or is about? The idea is that any work of art calls forth certain qualities of response, taste, experience, value, from the reader, and in a sense 'forms' the reader of that particular work. This happens through the subject matter, the style, the way the story is told or the scene set, the language, the images, the allusions, all the ways in which we are called by the text to construct meaning. The theorist Wayne Booth calls the reader as evoked or formed by the text the "implied reader."

 

12. What is your historical and cultural distance from the poem?

What can you say about the difference between your culture's (and sub-culture's) views of the world, your own experiences, on the one hand, and those of the voice, characters, and world of the poem on the other? What is it that you might have to understand better in order to experience the poem the way someone of the same time, class, gender and race might have understood it? Is it possible that your reading might be different from theirs because of your particular social (race, gender, class, etc.) and historical context? What about your world governs the way you see the world of the text? What might this work tell us about the world of its making?

 

13. What is the world-view and the ideology of the poem?

What are the basic ideas about the world that are expressed? What areas of human experience are seen as important, and what is valuable about them? What areas of human experience or classes of person are ignored or denigrated? A poem about love, for instance, might implicitly or explicitly suggest that individual happiness is the most important thing in the world, and that it can be gained principally through one intimate sexually-based relationship -- to the exclusion, say, of problems of social or political injustice, human brokenness and pain, or other demands on us as humans. It might also suggest that the world is a dangerous, uncertain place in which the only sure ground of meaningfulness is to be found in human relationships, or it might suggest on the other hand that human love is grounded in divine love, and in the orderliness and the value of the natural world with all its beauties. What aspects of the human condition are foregrounded, what are suppressed, in the claims that the poem makes by virtue of its inclusions and exclusions, certainties and uncertainties, and depictions of the way the natural and the human world is and works? For a brief elaboration of the concept of ideology, see my page on the subject.

 

 

 

 

Expository Writing

 

Basic Essay Structure

Introductory Paragraph

 Sentence 1:    Introduce Topic (no opinion)

 Sentence 2-3:  Narrow Focus

 Sentence 4:    Thesis Statement 

 

Body Paragraph(s)

 Sentence 1:    Topic Sentence

 Sentence 2:    Example To Support Topic Sentence

 Sentence 3:    Explanation of Example

 Sentence 4:    Example To Support Topic Sentence 

 Sentence5:    Explanation of Example

 Sentence 6:    Restate Topic Sentence

 

 Concluding Paragraph 

 Sentence 1:    Restate Thesis Statement

 Sentences 2-3:  Summarize Main Points (Topic Sentences)

 Sentence 4:    Clincher (Slam The Door!)

 

Descriptive Language Notes/Definitions

 

 

  1. Figurative language- language taken beyond its literal ordinary meaning

 

  1. Imagery- writing that appeals to the five senses

 

  1. Simile- comparison between two unlike objects using the words like or as

 

  1. Metaphor-  direct comparison between two unlike objects

 

  1. Hyperbole- extreme exaggeration

 

  1. Oxymoron- contradiction of terms

 

  1. Alliteration- similar sounds in the same sentence

 

  1. Assonance- the repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds, especially in stressed syllables, with changes in the intervening consonants, as in the phrase tilting at windmills

 

  1. Consonance- The repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables as in on scrolls of silver snowy sentences

 

  1. Onomatopoeia-  the formation or use of words that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to (examples:  buzz, crack, snap, boom, smash)

 

  1. Personification- giving life-like or human characteristics to non-human things.

 

  1. Atmosphere- the dominant tone or mood of a work of art

 

Grammar Notes

Eight Parts of Speech

1.             Noun-     person, place, thing

2.             Verb-      indicates action or state of being

State of Being Verbs:

am           is             are           was         were        be         being     been

do           does       did          have       has          had         may      must

might      shall     should    can          could      will        would  taste

feel          look        smell

3.                  3.             pronoun-takes the place of a noun

4.                    adjective-modifies (describes) nouns and pronouns.  Answers questions---what 

              kind, how many, and which one(s)

5.             adverbs-modifies (describes) verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs---usually ends

                in –ly.  Answers the questions—how, when, where, and to what extent.

6.                    preposition-relates its object to another word in the sentence.

                about        beneath          in            past       

                above        beside             inside    since

                across       between         into        through

                after           beyond          like         to

               against      but (except)  near       toward

               along          by                    of           under

               among       concerning   off          until

               around     down              on          up

               at                during           onto       upon

               before        except            out          with

               behind      for                   outside  within

               below        from               over         without    

7.             interjection-shows excitement or emotion.

8.             conjunction-combines words, phrases, and clauses.

 

Additional Definitions

subject                         whom or what the sentence is about

predicate                     what  happens or what the subject does

predicate noun          a noun in the predicate that is the same as the subject

predicate adjective    an adjective in the predicate that describes the subject

common noun            name given to a common group of persons, places, or things

proper noun               particular person, place, or thing.  Always capitalized

direct object                noun that receives the action and answers the question what or whom 

                                       (the words to and for NEVER come before a direct object).

indirect object            noun that tells to whom or for whom the action applies.  It sits between the verb and direct object

                             (the words to and for NEVER come before a direct object).

 

Pronoun Notes

subject pronouns                         object pronouns

singular                                            singular

I, he, she, you                                  me, him, her, you

 

plural                                                plural

we, they                                            us, them

 

Process Paper

 Introductory Paragraph

·        Catchy lead sentence—grab your readers’ attention and draw them in

·        Include what the process is

·        Include a list of materials/ingredients needed

·        Have a clear and concise thesis

 Body Paragraph(s)

·        Be sure to give instructions in chronological order

·        Be sure instructions are clear

·        Avoid lengthy sentences—better to have clearer, more concise instructions

·        Give examples or explain instructions thoroughly

Concluding Paragraph

·        Restate thesis (paper’s purpose)

·        Very briefly summarize body paragraph(s)

·        Use a catchy ending—leave your readers’ thinking about what you’ve written

 Due Date:____Beginning of the hour May 18

 You must bring all of your supplies/materials to school with you on Monday, May 21—If you do not have your materials, your paper goes down a grade until you do.  If you never bring your materials, you don’t have hope of receiving above a D as a grade---and that is if it is a great paper.

In 4th Quarter folder, save as:  Process Paper

Starting Monday, May 21 meet in my classroom (B-321) to do the process papers until we have completed them.  NO TARDIES WILL BE EXCUSED WITHOUT A PASS!

 

 

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